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L'essentiel de la littérature réçente en Pneumologie

Dans cette rubrique on vous propose une revue de la littérature à travers une sélection d'abstracts d'articles originaux.
On essaiera de vous tenir informé des dernières nouveautés de recherche en matière de Pneumologie. On ne vous fournit que le résumé de l'article et le lien correspondant, pour accéder à l'article en full text vous devez être inscrits à la revue correspondante.
Cliquez ici pour consulter la liste des revues de Pneumologie disponibles en libre accès.



Pulmonary Disease Caused by Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria. Imprimer Envoyer
Mardi, 24 Mai 2016 06:10

Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) include more than 160 ubiquitous, environmental, acid-fast-staining bacterial species, some of which may cause disease in humans.

Chronic pulmonary infection is the most common clinical manifestation. Although patients suffering from chronic lung diseases are particularly susceptible to NTM pulmonary disease, many affected patients have no apparent risk factors. Host and pathogen factors leading to NTM pulmonary disease are not well understood and preventive therapies are lacking. NTM isolation and pulmonary disease are reported to rise in frequency in Europe as well as in other parts of the world. Differentiation between contamination, infection, and disease remains challenging. Treatment of NTM pulmonary disease is arduous, lengthy, and costly. Correlations between results of in vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing and clinical treatment outcomes are only evident for the Mycobacterium avium complex, M. kansasii, and some rapidly growing mycobacteria.

We describe the epidemiology of NTM pulmonary disease as well as emerging NTM pathogens and their geographical distribution in non-cystic fibrosis patients in Europe. We also review recent innovations for the diagnosis of NTM pulmonary disease, summarize treatment recommendations, and identify future research priorities to improve the management of patients affected by NTM pulmonary disease.

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Barriers to inhaled gene therapy of obstructive lung diseases: A review. Imprimer Envoyer
Mardi, 24 Mai 2016 06:10
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Knowledge of genetic origins of obstructive lung diseases has made inhaled gene therapy an attractive alternative to the current standards of care that are limited to managing disease symptoms.

Initial lung gene therapy clinical trials occurred in the early 1990s following the discovery of the genetic defect responsible for cystic fibrosis (CF), a monogenic disorder. However, despite over two decades of intensive effort, gene therapy has yet to help patients with CF or any other obstructive lung disease. The slow progress is due in part to poor understanding of the biological barriers to inhaled gene therapy. Encouragingly, clinical trials have shown that inhaled gene therapy with various viral vectors and non-viral gene vectors is well tolerated by patients, and continued research has provided valuable lessons and resources that may lead to future success of this therapeutic strategy.

In this review, we first introduce representative obstructive lung diseases and examine limitations of currently available therapeutic options. We then review key components for successful execution of inhaled gene therapy, including gene delivery systems, primary physiological barriers and strategies to overcome them, and advances in preclinical disease models with which the most promising systems may be identified for human clinical trials.

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Lung cancer screening in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Imprimer Envoyer
Mardi, 24 Mai 2016 06:10
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Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two intimately related diseases, with great impact on public health. Annual screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) of the chest significantly reduces mortality due to lung cancer, and several scientific societies now recommend this technique.

COPD, defined by the presence of airflow obstruction [forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio less than 0.70], and their clinical phenotypes, namely emphysema and chronic bronchitis, have been associated with increased lung cancer risk. Several epidemiological studies, including lung cancer screening trials, have found a 2- to 4-fold increase in lung cancer risk in patients with COPD when compared to individuals without airflow obstruction. Part of the risk attributed to airflow obstruction appears to be derived from the presence of radiographic emphysema. The latter has proven to be an important lung cancer risk factor in smokers without airflow obstruction and even in never smokers. This evidence supports the idea of including patients with COPD and/or emphysema in lung cancer screening programs. There is evidence that lung cancer screening in this population is effective and can potentially reduce mortality.

Specific lung cancer risk scores have been developed for patients with COPD [COPD lung cancer screening score (LUCSS) and COPD-LUCSS-diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO)] to identify those at high risk. A multidisciplinary approach for an adequate patient selection, especially of patients with severe disease, is key to maximize benefits and reduce harms from lung cancer screening in this population. Patients with COPD included in lung cancer screening programs could also benefit from other interventions, such as smoking cessation and adequate treatment.

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