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L'essentiel de la littérature réçente en Pneumologie

Dans cette rubrique on vous propose une revue de la littérature à travers une sélection d'abstracts d'articles originaux.
On essaiera de vous tenir informé des dernières nouveautés de recherche en matière de Pneumologie. On ne vous fournit que le résumé de l'article et le lien correspondant, pour accéder à l'article en full text vous devez être inscrits à la revue correspondante.
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Subtle changes in bone mineralization density distribution in most severely affected patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Imprimer Envoyer
Mardi, 26 Mai 2015 06:08
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with low aBMD as measured by DXA and altered microstructure as assessed by bone histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography.

Knowledge of bone matrix mineralization is lacking in COPD. Using quantitative backscatter electron imaging (qBEI), we assessed cancellous (Cn.) and cortical (Ct.) bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) in 19 postmenopausal women (62.1±7.3 years of age) with COPD. Eight had sustained fragility fractures, and 13 had received treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids. The BMDD outcomes from the patients were compared to healthy reference data and were correlated with previous clinical and histomorphometric findings. In general, the BMDD outcomes for the patients were not significantly different from the reference data. Neither the subgroups of with or without fragility fractures or of who did or did not receive inhaled glucocorticoid treatment, showed differences in BMDD. However, subgroup comparison according to severity revealed 10% decreased cancellous mineralization heterogeneity (Cn.CaWidth) for the most severely affected compared to less affected patients (p=0.042) and compared to healthy premenopausal controls (p=0.021). BMDD parameters were highly correlated with histomorphometric cancellous bone volume (BV/TV) and formation indices: mean degree of mineralization (Cn.CaMean) versus BV/TV (r=0.58, p=0.009), and Cn.CaMean and Ct.CaMean versus bone formation rate (BFR/BS) (r=-0.71, p<0.001). In particular, those with lower BV/TV (<50(th) percentile) had significantly lower Cn.CaMean (p=0.037) and higher Cn.CaLow (p=0.020) compared to those with higher (>50(th) percentile) BV/TV. The normality in most of the BMDD parameters and bone formation rates as well as the significant correlations between them suggest unaffected mineralization processes in COPD.

Our findings also indicate no significant negative effect of treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids on the bone mineralization pattern. However, the observed concomitant occurrence of relatively lower bone volumes with lower bone matrix mineralization will both contribute to the reduced aBMD in some patients with COPD.

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Systemic Inflammatory Marker CRP Was Better Predictor of Readmission for AECOPD Than Sputum Inflammatory Markers. Imprimer Envoyer
Mardi, 26 Mai 2015 06:08
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Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) readmission contributes considerably to the worse outcomes for COPD patients. Predictors for readmission include some socio-demographic variables and the severity of the underlying disease, however, few evidence suggested whether persistently heightened airway or systemic inflammation was related to recurrence of AECOPD. The aim of this study was to evaluate role of airway and systemic inflammatory biomarkers during AECOPD on predicting readmission for AECOPD.

METHODS: Consecutive hospitalized patients with AECOPD were recruited. Inflammatory and clinical indices were evaluated at the day of admission before starting therapy and the day of planned discharge (day 10-14). Predictors for readmission were assessed by binary logistic regression model.

RESULTS: 93 patients were included with 51 patients (54.8%) were readmitted due to AECOPD at least once during 1 year following the index admission. The logistic regression model indicated that age (OR=1.072, 95%CI: 1.012-1.135, P=.017), hs-CRP (high sensitive-C reactive protein) at day 14 (OR=1.392, 95%CI: 1.131-1.712, P=.002), CAT value at day 14 (OR=1.12, 95%CI: 1.031-1.217, P=.007) were the independent variables statistically significant in predicting rehospitalization.

CONCLUSION: Systemic inflammatory marker CRP was a better predictor of readmission than sputum inflammatory markers. CAT score and age were also useful to predict readmission.

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Expiratory flow limitation relates to symptoms during COPD exacerbations requiring hospital admission. Imprimer Envoyer
Mardi, 26 Mai 2015 06:08
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Expiratory flow limitation (EFL) is seen in some patients presenting with a COPD exacerbation; however, it is unclear how EFL relates to the clinical features of the exacerbation. We hypothesized that EFL when present contributes to symptoms and duration of recovery during a COPD exacerbation. Our aim was to compare changes in EFL with symptoms in subjects with and without flow-limited breathing admitted for a COPD exacerbation.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 29 subjects with COPD were recruited within 48 hours of admission to West China Hospital for an acute exacerbation. Daily measurements of post-bronchodilator spirometry, resistance, and reactance using the forced oscillation technique and symptom (Borg) scores until discharge were made. Flow-limited breathing was defined as the difference between inspiratory and expiratory respiratory system reactance (EFL index) greater than 2.8 cmH2O·s·L(-1). The physiological predictors of symptoms during recovery were determined by mixed-effect analysis.

RESULTS: Nine subjects (31%) had flow-limited breathing on admission despite similar spirometry compared to subjects without flow-limited breathing. Spirometry and resistance measures did not change between enrolment and discharge. EFL index values improved in subjects with flow-limited breathing on admission, with resolution in four patients. In subjects with flow-limited breathing on admission, symptoms were related to inspiratory resistance and EFL index values. In subjects without flow-limited breathing, symptoms related to forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity. In the whole cohort, EFL index values at admission was related to duration of stay (Rs=0.4, P=0.03).

CONCLUSION: The presence of flow-limited breathing as well as abnormal respiratory system mechanics contribute independently to symptoms during COPD exacerbations.

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