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L'essentiel de la littérature réçente en Pneumologie

Dans cette rubrique on vous propose une revue de la littérature à travers une sélection d'abstracts d'articles originaux.
On essaiera de vous tenir informé des dernières nouveautés de recherche en matière de Pneumologie. On ne vous fournit que le résumé de l'article et le lien correspondant, pour accéder à l'article en full text vous devez être inscrits à la revue correspondante.
Cliquez ici pour consulter la liste des revues de Pneumologie disponibles en libre accès.

Second-line anti-tuberculosis drug resistance and its genetic determinants in multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates. Imprimer Envoyer
Mardi, 30 Juin 2015 09:20

BACKGROUND: Mutations in several genetic loci have been implicated in the development of resistance to second-line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs (SLDs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of resistance to SLDs and its association with specific mutations in multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 46 MDR-TB isolates. Mutation profiling was performed by amplifying and sequencing the following six genes: gyrA/gyrB, rrs, tlyA, and ethA/ethR, in which mutations are implicated in resistance of tubercle bacilli to ofloxacin (OFX), amikacin (AMK), capreomycin, and ethionamide (ETH), respectively.

RESULTS: Of the strains analyzed, 14 (30.4%) showed resistance to at least one of the four SLDs tested. Mutations in the gyrA gene occurred in 34 (73.9%) strains, with the most common amino acid change being Ser95Thr. The Asp94Asn and Ala90Val substitutions in the gyrA were present exclusively in OFX-resistant strains, yet represented only 40% of all OFX-resistant strains. The only mutation in the gyrB gene was substitution Ser447Phe, detected in one OFX-resistant isolate. None of the AMK-resistant strains carried a mutation in the rrs gene. Mutations in the ethA/ethR loci were found in one ETH-resistant and 11 ETH-susceptible strains.

CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study challenge the usefulness of sequence analyses of tested genes (except gyrA) for the prediction of SLD resistance patterns and highlight the need for searching other genetic loci for detection of mutations conferring resistance to SLDs in M. tuberculosis.

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Asthma, COPD and overlap syndrome: a longitudinal study in young European adults. Imprimer Envoyer
Mardi, 30 Juin 2015 09:20
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We compared risk factors and clinical characteristics, 9-year lung function change and hospitalisation risk across subjects with the asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS), asthma or COPD alone, or none of these diseases.

Participants in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey in 1991-1993 (aged 20-44 years) and 1999-2001 were included. Chronic airflow obstruction was defined as pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity<lower limit of normal on both occasions. Based on their history of respiratory symptoms, spirometry and risk factors, subjects were classified as having asthma alone (n=941), COPD alone (n=166), ACOS (n=218) and none of these (n=5659).Subjects with ACOS shared risk factors and clinical characteristics with subjects with asthma alone, but they had an earlier age of asthma onset. FEV1 change in the ACOS group (-25.9 mL·year(-1)) was similar to that in the asthma group (-25.3 mL·year(-1)), and lower (p<0.001) than in the COPD group (-37.3 mL·year(-1)). ACOS was associated with the highest hospitalisation rate.Among young adults aged 20-44 years,

ACOS seems to represent a form of severe asthma, characterised by more frequent hospitalisations, and to be the result of early-onset asthma that has progressed to fixed airflow obstruction.

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Treatment of emphysema using bronchoscopic lung volume reduction coil technology: an update on efficacy and safety. Imprimer Envoyer
Mardi, 30 Juin 2015 09:20

In the last decade several promising bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) treatments were developed and investigated. One of these treatments is BLVR treatment with coils. The advantage of this specific treatment is that it works independently of collateral flow, and also shows promise for patients with a more homogeneous emphysema disease distribution. Seven years ago, the very first patients were treated with BLVR coil treatment and currently large randomized, controlled trials are underway.

The aim of this article is to review the available literature and provide an update on the current knowledge on the efficacy and safety of BLVR treatment with coils.

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