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L'essentiel de la littérature réçente en Pneumologie

Dans cette rubrique on vous propose une revue de la littérature à travers une sélection d'abstracts d'articles originaux.
On essaiera de vous tenir informé des dernières nouveautés de recherche en matière de Pneumologie. On ne vous fournit que le résumé de l'article et le lien correspondant, pour accéder à l'article en full text vous devez être inscrits à la revue correspondante.
Cliquez ici pour consulter la liste des revues de Pneumologie disponibles en libre accès.

Therapeutic implications of ‘neutrophilic asthma’ Imprimer Envoyer
Mercredi, 28 Janvier 2015 06:08

imagePurpose of review: This review examines the association between airway neutrophilia and severe asthma, potential mechanisms, and the effect on asthma control of therapies directed at reducing airway neutrophil numbers or activity.

Recent findings: The majority of studies that observe an association between airway neutrophilia and severe asthma are cross-sectional in nature, and the intensity of neutrophilia is low and may be a reflection of the age of the patients, effect of tobacco smoke exposure, or the high doses of corticosteroids used to treat their asthma. There may be a small proportion of patients who may have abnormal innate immune responses that may lead to airway neutrophilia. However, these neutrophils may not be any more activated than in patients with milder asthma. Novel strategies using small molecule antagonists against the interleukin-8 receptor, CXCR2, are able to reduce airway neutrophilia, and their clinical efficacies are being investigated.

Summary: Although cross-sectional studies suggest that airway neutrophilia may be observed in some patients with severe asthma, it is not clearly established if this is a consequence of treatment with corticosteroids or if it contributes directly to asthma pathobiology and severity. New therapies such as anti-CXCR2 provide an opportunity to investigate the contribution of neutrophils to asthma severity.

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Obesity and asthma: current knowledge and future needs Imprimer Envoyer
Mercredi, 28 Janvier 2015 06:08

imagePurpose of review: Obesity has significant impact on asthma incidence and manifestations. The purpose of the review is to discuss recent observations regarding the association between obesity and asthma focusing on underlying mechanisms, clinical presentation, response to therapy and effect of weight reduction.

Recent findings: Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obese patients with asthma may represent a unique phenotype, which is more difficult to control, less responsive to asthma medications and by that may have higher healthcare utilization. A number of common comorbidities have been linked to both obesity and asthma, and may, therefore, contribute to the obese–asthma phenotype. Furthermore, recently published studies indicate that even a modest weight reduction can improve clinical manifestations and outcome of asthma.

Summary: Compared with normal-weight patients, obese and overweight patients with asthma have poorer asthma control and respond less to corticosteroid therapy. Future studies focusing on the mechanism underlying both obesity and asthma including the obese–asthma phenotype are required to better characterize the link between the conditions and target the management of this patient group.

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Allergic fungal airway disease: pathophysiologic and diagnostic considerations Imprimer Envoyer
Mercredi, 28 Janvier 2015 06:08

imagePurpose of review: Fungal spores are ubiquitously present in indoor and outdoor air. A number can act as aeroallergens in Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-sensitized individuals and some thermotolerant fungi germinate in the lung where they can cause a combined allergic and infective stimulus leading to a number of clinical presentations characterized by evidence of lung damage. We discuss which biomarkers are useful in helping to guide diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of allergic fungal airway disease (AFAD).

Recent findings: Diagnostic biomarkers, such as specific IgEs and fungal culture, for AFAD are limited by sensitivity, although this may be improved with novel agents such as specific IgEs to fungal components and quantitative PCR. Total IgE and hypereosinophilia are nonspecific and do not clearly relate to disease activity. High attenuation mucus and proximal bronchiectasis are specific, albeit insensitive markers of AFAD. Biomarkers that predict prognosis and treatment response are yet to be defined.

Summary: This review summarizes the fungi involved and the current debate regarding the diagnostic criteria to define fungal-associated lung disease. We advocate the phasing out of the term allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and the use of a more inclusive term such as AFAD, together with a more liberal set of criteria based largely on IgE sensitization to thermotolerant fungi, which identifies those patients at risk of developing lung damage.

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