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L'essentiel de la littérature réçente en Pneumologie

Dans cette rubrique on vous propose une revue de la littérature à travers une sélection d'abstracts d'articles originaux.
On essaiera de vous tenir informé des dernières nouveautés de recherche en matière de Pneumologie. On ne vous fournit que le résumé de l'article et le lien correspondant, pour accéder à l'article en full text vous devez être inscrits à la revue correspondante.
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Prognostic Value of Pleural Lavage Cytology in Patients with Lung Cancer Resection: An Updated Meta-Analysis. Imprimer Envoyer
Jeudi, 28 Juillet 2016 11:03

OBJECTIVE: Pleural lavage cytology (PLC) is considered as a possible tool for assessing prognosis of lung cancer patients. We aimed to comprehensively review the prognosis value of PLC in patients undergoing surgical resection.

METHODS: We searched 4 electronic databases for relevant studies comparing positive PLC and negative PLC. The primary outcomes included survival rate and recurrence rate at maximum follow-up.

RESULTS: The meta-analysis included 28 studies, with a total of 20,714 patients. For the overall survival rate of all stages, the results demonstrated that positive pre-resection, post-resection and pooled PLC were associated with unfavorable survival: hazard ratio (HR) 2.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.48-3.37), 2.70 (1.90-3.83), and 2.89 (2.52-3.31), respectively. For the stage I survival rate, the combined results also suggested that positive pre-resection, post-resection and pooled PLC were associated with unfavorable survival: HR 3.29 (95% CI 2.55-4.25), 4.85 (2.31-10.20), and 3.16 (2.53-3.94), respectively. Furthermore, a meta-analysis of 14 studies included 14,279 patients showed that positive pre-resection, post-resection and pooled PLC were associated with an increased risk of overall recurrence: risk ratio (RR) 2.45 (95% CI 1.91-3.15), 2.37 (1.11-5.09), and 2.37 (95% CI 2.00-2.80), respectively. Positive PLC was also associated with a high pleural recurrence (RR 4.77; 95% CI 3.13-7.26) or distant recurrence (RR 2.33; 95% CI 1.65-3.29).

CONCLUSIONS: Both positive pre- resection and post-resection PLC are associated with not only higher tumor recurrence but also unfavorable survival outcomes in patients with lung cancer resection. This technique can therefore act as a strong prognostic factor for tumor recurrence and adverse survival rates.

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Upper airway viruses and bacteria and clinical outcomes in children with cough. Imprimer Envoyer
Jeudi, 28 Juillet 2016 11:03

BACKGROUND: Cough is symptomatic of a broad range of acute and chronic pediatric respiratory illnesses. No studies in children have tested for an extended panel of upper airway respiratory viruses and bacteria to identify whether they predict cough outcomes, irrespective of clinical diagnosis at the time of acute respiratory illness (ARI). We therefore determined whether upper airway microbes independently predicted hospitalization and persistent cough 28-days later in children presenting with an ARI, including cough as a symptom.

METHODS: A cohort study of children aged <15-years were followed for 28-days after presenting to a pediatric emergency department with an ARI where cough was also a symptom. Socio-demographic factors, presenting clinical features and a bilateral anterior nasal swab were collected at enrolment. Polymerase chain reaction assays tested for seven respiratory bacteria and 17 viruses. Predictors of hospitalization and persistent cough at day-28 were evaluated in logistic regression models.

RESULTS: Eight hundred and seventeen children were included in the analysis; median age 27.7-months. 116 (14.2%, 95%CI 11.8, 16.6) children were hospitalized and 163 (20.0%, 95%CI 17.2, 22.7) had persistent cough at day-28. Hospitalized children were more likely to have RSV A or B detected on nasal swab than those not admitted (adjusted relative risk (aRR) 1.8, 95%CI 1.0, 3.3). M. catarrhalis was the only microbial difference between children with and without cough persistence (aRR for those with cough at day 28: 2.1, 95%CI 1.3, 3.1).

DISCUSSION: An etiologic role for M. catarrhalis in the pathogenesis of persistent cough post-ARI is worth exploring, especially given the burden of chronic cough in children and its relationship with chronic lung disease. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016; 9999:1-9. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Resolvins and omega three polyunsaturated fatty acids: Clinical implications in inflammatory diseases and cancer. Imprimer Envoyer
Jeudi, 28 Juillet 2016 11:03

Inflammation is a central process in several disorders and contributes to cancer progression. Inflammation involves a complex cascade of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signaling events with protein and lipid mediators. Recent advances in lipid detection have revealed the importance of lipid mediators in inflammation. Omega three polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) are found naturally in fish oil and have been extensively studied in multiple inflammatory diseases with improved outcomes.

Resolvins are thought to be the active metabolites of ω-3 PUFA, and are responsible for facilitating the resolving phase of acute inflammation. Clinically, resolvins have been associated with resolution of acute kidney injury and acute lung injury, micro and macro vascular response to injury, and inhibition of microglia-activated inflammation in neurodegenerative disorders. In addition to inflammatory diseases, ω-3 PUFA and resolvins appear to modulate cancer progression. ω-3 PUFA intake has been associated with reduced inflammation in colorectal cancer, and favorable phenotype in breast cancer. Resolvins offer promising therapeutic potential as they may modulate inflammation with minimal side-effects, in contrast to currently available anti-inflammatory medications.

This review describes the roles of ω-3 PUFA and resolvins in the inflammatory cascade, various inflammatory diseases, and specific cancers. Additionally, it will discuss the clinical therapeutic potential of resolvins as targets in inflammatory diseases and cancers. 

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